Citation Information :
Victor R, Gondwal R, Avinash P, Bhat K. Psychiatric Implication of Deficiency of Vitamin B 12 and Vitamin D: A Cross-sectional Study from North India. Ind J Priv Psychiatry 2023; 17 (2):64-67.
Background: Both vitamin B12 and vitamin D are closely correlated with various neurological and psychiatric disorders. These vitamins might have an etiological and prognostic value across a variety of psychiatric illnesses, especially depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, schizophrenia, dementia, schizophrenia, and so on. Objective: To explore about the deficiency of vitamin D and vitamin B12 in patients presenting to the psychiatry OPD and admitted in indoor wards and explore its relation with various psychiatric disorders. Materials and methods: In our cross-sectional, observational study, data were taken out retrospectively from the psychiatry and biochemistry record system of patients who had visited psychiatry OPD and IPD in the last 6 months and had undergone vitamin B12 and vitamin D investigations. Results: About 168 subjects were included in the study, of which 96 had undergone vitamin B12 level and 72 underwent vitamin D investigations. The mean of vitamin B12 was 314.02 ± 420.28 and the mean of vitamin D was 72.5 ± 62 in the study sample. Vitamin B12 deficiency was majorly found in patients suffering from anxiety disorder (29.8%) followed by depressive disorder (19.1%) and substance use disorder (17%), while vitamin D deficiency was mainly present in cases with an anxiety disorder (29.7%) followed by depressive disorder (13.5%). An equal number of cases with substance use disorder, schizophrenia, and somatic symptom disorder had the vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: Early recognition of the deficiency and prompt management would surely affect the course of various psychiatric morbidities.
Obeid R, McCaddon A, Herrmann W. The role of hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Clin Chem Lab Med 2007;45(12):1590–1606. DOI: 10.1515/CCLM.2007.356.
Valizadeh M, Valizadeh N. Obsessive compulsive disorder as early manifestation of B12 deficiency. Indian J Psychol Med 2011;33(2): 203–204. DOI: 10.4103/0253-7176.92051.
Fischer AG, Ullsperger M. An Update on the Role of Serotonin and its Interplay with Dopamine for Reward. Front Hum Neurosci 2017;11:484. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00484.
Holick MF, Chen TC. Vitamin D deficiency: A worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(4):1080S-1086S. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/87.4.1080S.
Kalueff AV, Eremin KO, Tuohimaa P. Mechanisms of neuroprotective action of vitamin D(3). Biochem Biokhimiia 2004;69(7):738–741. DOI: 10.1023/b:biry.0000040196.65686.2f.
Cieslak K, Feingold J, Antonius D, et al. Low Vitamin D levels predict clinical features of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2014;159(0):543–545. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.08.031.
Graham KA, Keefe RS, Lieberman JA, et al. Relationship of low vitamin D status with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains in people with first-episode schizophrenia. Early Interv Psychiatry 2015;9(5):397–405. DOI: 10.1111/eip.12122.
McCue RE, Charles RA, Orendain GCM, et al. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Psychiatric Inpatients. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2012;14(2):PCC.11m01230. DOI: 10.4088/PCC.11m01230.
Skarupski KA, Tangney C, Li H, et al. Longitudinal association of vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92(2):330–335. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29413.
Walker JG, Batterham PJ, Mackinnon AJ, et al. Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms–the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95(1):194–203. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.110.007799.
Syed EU, Wasay M, Awan S. Vitamin B12 supplementation in treating major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Open Neurol J 2013;7:44–48. DOI: 10.2174/1874205X01307010044.
Sherchand O, Sapkota N, Chaudhari RK, et al. Association between vitamin D deficiency and depression in Nepalese population. Psychiatry Res 2018;267:266–271. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.06.018.
Todorov AA, Chumpalova-Tumbeva PG, Stoimenova-Popova MY, et al. Correlation between Depression and Anxiety and the Level of Vitamin B12 in Patients with Depression and Anxiety and Healthy Controls. J Biomed Clin Res 2017;10(2):140–145. DOI: 10.1515/jbcr-2017-0023.
Kelley L, Sanders AFP, Beaton EA. Vitamin D deficiency, behavioral atypicality, anxiety and depression in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. J Dev Orig Health Dis 2016;7(6):616–625. DOI: 10.1017/S2040174416000428.
Madebo T, Bemanian M, Vold JH, et al. Vitamin B12 levels, substance use patterns and clinical characteristics among people with severe substance use disorders: a cohort study from Western Norway. Nutrients 2022;14(9):1941. DOI: 10.3390/nu14091941.
Neupane SP, Lien L, Hilberg T, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in alcohol-use disorders and its relationship to comorbid major depression: a cross-sectional study of inpatients in Nepal. Drug Alcohol Depend 2013;133(2):480–485. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.07.006.
Gomez-Bernal GJ, Bernal-Perez M. Vitamin B12 deficiency manifested as mania: a case report. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2007;9(3):238. DOI: 10.4088/pcc.v09n0311g.
Sangle P, Sandhu O, Aftab Z, Anthony AT, Khan S. Vitamin B12 Supplementation: Preventing Onset and Improving Prognosis of Depression. Cureus. 2020 Oct 26;12(10):e11169. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.11169.
Katı, Aşoglu MMR. The effect of vitamin B12 on dissociative identity disorder (2016).
Srivastava S, Bhatia MS, Gautam P. 25 Hydroxyvitamin D levels, quality of life, and disability in long-standing patients of somatization. Ind Psychiatry J 2018;27(1):87–91. DOI: 10.4103/ipj.ipj_73_17.
Aydin EP, Varkal MD, Toker OG, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in depressive, anxiety and adjustment disorder. Psychiatry Clin Psychopharmacol 2015;25(1):S43–S45.
Spence JD. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke. Nutr Res N Y N 2016; 36(2):109–116. DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.10.003.
Littlejohns TJ, Henley WE, Lang IA, et al. Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2014 Sep 2;83(10):920–928. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000755.
Wentz LM, Eldred JD, Henry MD, et al. Clinical relevance of optimizing vitamin D status in soldiers to enhance physical and cognitive performance. J Spec Oper Med 2014;14(1):58–66. DOI: 10.55460/52YL-XU05.
Yan S, Liu H, Yu Y, et al. Changes of serum homocysteine and vitamin B12, but not folate are correlated with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. Front Psychiatry 2022;13:754165. Published 2022 May 9. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.754165.
Esnafoğlu E, Yaman E. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and vitamin D levels in children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res 2017;254:232–237. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.04.032.