Background: Apart from being the first linguistic-based state, Telugu states are important states in more than one way in the Indian union. There were no reports from the Telugu states about suicides before and after the bifurcation. Aim: To analyze suicides in Telugu states for the period 1966–2021 and to find the effect of bifurcation on the considered criteria. Materials and methods: Information relating to suicides was accessed from National Crime Records Bureau on Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India. The data obtained relate to number of suicides, rate, cause, education, income, marital status/social status, mode/means, and profession for the years 1966–2013 for the combined Andhra Pradesh (AP) and 2014–2021 for Andhra and Telangana states, separately and combined. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare criteria before bifurcation (2006–2013) and after bifurcation (2014–2021) by combining AP and Telangana states and differences between the two states. Results: Telugu state contributed 9.4% and 10.8% toward national suicides before and after bifurcation, respectively. There were no differences in the criteria studied before and after bifurcation, except in rate. Telangana recorded a higher rate compared with its’ counterpart. Andhra recorded lesser illiterates and higher poisoning. Conclusion: Improving education and health facilities and providing better earnings will reduce suicides. Telangana needs to adopt drastic measures to reduce the rate.
Andhra Pradesh Population Census 2011 - Census India. From: https://www.censusindia.co.in > states > Andhra Pradesh.
NCRB ADSI of Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India (Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India). https://ncrb.gov.in>...> ADSI Reports of Previous years.
Standard Deviation Calculator. https://www.calculator.net > standard-deviation-calculator.html.
Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test Calculator. https://www.socscistatistics.com > tests > signed ranks and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test Calculator - AAT Bioquest. https://www.aatbio.com > Tools.
Bhavya Desai. Alcohol consumption patterns in India. AMBROSIA 2021. www.ambrosiaindia.com/2021/02/4494/
Øien-Ødegaard C, Hauge LJ, Reneflot A. Marital status, educational attainment, and suicide risk: A Norwegian register-based population study. Popul Health Metr 2021;19(1):33. DOI: 10.1186/s12963-021-00263-2.
Shalini G, Jitender K. Role of psychosocial factors in completed suicide – A study conducted at RML mortuary from 2017 to 2021. J Forensic Med Toxicol 2021:38:57–60. DOI: 10.5958/0974-4568.2021.00034.X.
Phillips JA, Hempstead K. Differences in U.S. Suicide Rates by Educational Attainment, 2000–2014. Am J Prev Med 2017;53(4): e123–e130. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.010.
Pompili M, Vichi M, Qin P, et al. Does the level of education influence completed suicide? A nationwide register study. J Affect Disord 2013;147(1–3):437–440. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.046.
Radhakrishnan R, Andrade C. Suicide: An Indian perspective. Indian J Psychiatry 2012;54(4):304–319. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.104793.
Næss EO, Mehlum L, Qin P. Marital status, and suicide risk: Temporal effect of marital breakdown and contextual difference by socioeconomic status. SSM Popul Health 2021;15:100853. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100853.
Kyung-Sook W, SangSoo S, Sangjin S, et al. Marital status integration and suicide: A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Soc Sci Med 2018;197:116–126. DOI: 10.1016/j. socscimed.2017.11.053.
Kposowa AJ. Marital status and suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2000;54:254–261. DOI: 10.1136/jech.54.4.254.
Luoma JB, Pearson JL. Suicide and marital status in the United States, 1991–1996: Is widowhood a risk factor? Am J Public Health 2002;92(9):1518–1522. DOI: 10.2105/ajph.92.9.1518.
Osazuwa-Peters N, Simpson MC, Du EY, et al. Marital status and suicide as a competing cause of mortality among cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol 2020;38(15_suppl):e19113.
Roberts SE, Jaremin B, Lloyd K. High-risk occupations for suicide. Psychol Med 2013;43(6):1231–1240. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291712002024.
Milner A, Spittal MJ, Pirkis J, et al. Suicide by occupation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2013;203(6):409–416. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.128405.
Andrés AR. Income inequality, unemployment, and suicide: A panel data analysis of 15 European countries). Appl Econ 2005;37(4): 439–451. DOI: 10.1080/0003684042000295304.
Wetherall K, Daly M, Robb KA, et al. Explaining the income and suicidality relationship: Income rank is more strongly associated with suicidal thoughts and attempts than income. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2015;50(6):929–937. DOI: 10.1007/s00127-015-1050-120.
Magnusson S, Mäkinen IH. Sweden: Income and suicide. Psychol Rep 2010;107(1):157–162. DOI: 10.2466/02.12.13.17.
Keyvanara M, Mousavi SG, Karami Z. Social class status and suicide characteristics: A survey among patients who attempted suicide in Isfahan. Mater Sociomed 2013;25(1):56–59. DOI: 10.5455/msm.2013.25.56-59.
Chettri R, Gurung J, Singh B. A 10-year retrospective study of suicides in Sikkim, India: Sociodemographic profile and risk assessment. Indian J Psychiatry 2016;58(4):448–453. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.196712.