Indian Journal of Private Psychiatry

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VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2023 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

The Association between Hyponatremia and Psychotropic: An Observational Study in Chronic Forensic Rehabilitation Ward at Mental Health Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia

Javed A Siddiqui, Shazia Farheen Qureshi, Abdullah Alzahrani

Keywords : Antidepressant, Antipsychotic, Hyponatremia, Mood stabilizer

Citation Information : Siddiqui JA, Qureshi SF, Alzahrani A. The Association between Hyponatremia and Psychotropic: An Observational Study in Chronic Forensic Rehabilitation Ward at Mental Health Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Ind J Priv Psychiatry 2023; 17 (2):59-63.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10067-0139

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 14-06-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Background: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte imbalance experienced in psychiatric clinical practice, both in hospital and outpatient settings, in patients taking psychotropic medications. It is a multifactorial clinical condition characterized by a plasma sodium level of less than 130 millimoles per liter. In psychiatric patients, this is mostly ignored and untreated, which can lead to increased mortality.1 Aims and objectives: The main objectives of this study are: • To evaluate the socio-demographic profile. • To evaluate the severity of hyponatremia in patients using psychotropic. • To evaluate the association between hyponatremia and psychotropic. Materials and methods: This was an observational study performed in the forensic psychiatric rehabilitation wards of the Mental Health Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia. Study participants were patients admitted to the inpatient ward (n = 73) between 2018 and 2022. Descriptive statistical analysis was explored and presented as categorical variables such as frequencies and percentages. We also explored the relationship between hyponatremia and psychotropics. Results: An observational study was conducted over a period of 5 years. The majority of patients (34.48%) were in the age group of 46 to 55 years, and the total number of hyponatremia patients was (n = 29; 39.72%). The maximum number of patients was 44.82% with mild hyponatremia (130–134 mmol/L), 37.93% with moderate (125–130 mmol/L), and 17.24% with severe hyponatremia (<120 mmol/L). Hyponatremia was found in 4.10% of antidepressant patients, 20.54% of patients on antipsychotics, and 9.58% of patients on mood stabilizers. Conclusions: In our study, hyponatremia was most prevalent among patients between 45 and 55 years of age. Haloperidol was the most likely antipsychotic to cause hyponatremia. Among atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole was most commonly associated with hyponatremia, followed by risperidone and amisulpride, whereas quetiapine had a minimal number. Among mood stabilizers, valproic acid was associated with hyponatremia, whereas lithium and carbamazepine were less likely to be associated.

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