Indian Journal of Private Psychiatry

Register      Login

VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2023 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of COVID-19: An Online Survey

Kaustav Chakraborty, Moumita Chatterjee, Rajarshi Neogi, Ranjan Bhattacharyya, Munish Agarwal, Soumya Chatterjee, Gautam Saha

Keywords : Coronavirus disease, Neuropsychiatric, Psychiatric, Symptoms

Citation Information : Chakraborty K, Chatterjee M, Neogi R, Bhattacharyya R, Agarwal M, Chatterjee S, Saha G. Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of COVID-19: An Online Survey. Ind J Priv Psychiatry 2023; 17 (1):26-33.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10067-0136

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 10-02-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause neuropsychiatric sequelae. However, there is dearth of data regarding the same from this subcontinent. Aim and objectives: To determine the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms among patients who recovered from COVID-19 illness. Materials and methods: It was an online survey that was conducted by using Google form with link sent by using WhatsApp to subjects who suffered and recovered from COVID-19 illness. The online survey was done through a 71-item self-designed questionnaire. It took around 10 minutes to complete the questionnaire. In total, 250 responses were received. Results: A typical subject was male (63.2%), healthcare provider (33.6%), Hindu (96.4%) by religion, and from urban background (74%). Nearly about two-fifths (43.2%) and one-fifth (20.8%) of the subjects had comorbid physical and psychiatric disorders, respectively. Majority of the subjects had COVID-19 illness in the past 1 month. Nearly about one-sixth (17.6%) of the subjects lost somebody in their family due to COVID-19. Majority (59.2%) of the subjects experienced persistent fatigue after recovering from COVID-19. Nearly about one-third of the subjects experienced persistent low mood (34.8%), sleep difficulty (38.8%), anxiety symptoms (39.6%), irritability (34.4%), difficulty in concentrating (39.6%), and forgetfulness (30.8%). Nearly about one-sixth of the subjects had panic attacks (18.4%), flashback of illness (16%), obsessive–compulsive symptoms (18.8%), and sexual difficulty (16%) after recovering from COVID-19. Nearly half of the subjects became more preoccupied about bodily symptoms (45.6%), became more anxious on reading COVID-19-related news (45.2%), and hence avoided the same (49.6%). Nearly about one-fifth of the subjects had persistent loss of smell (25.6%), taste (20.4%), and brain fog (26.4%). A miniscule proportion of the subjects had new-onset headache (15.2%), giddiness (12%), and tremor of hands (9.6%). Conclusion: The index survey suggested that neuropsychiatric symptoms are quite prevalent after recovering from COVID-19 illness.

  1. Coronavirus [cited 2022 April 8]. Available from:
  2. Chen Q, Liang M, Li Y, et al. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7(4):e15–e16. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30078-X.
  3. Yang Y, Li W, Zhang Q, et al. Mental health services for older adults in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7(4):e19. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30079-1.
  4. Grover S, Sahoo S, Mehra A, et al. Psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62(4):354–362. DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_427_20.
  5. Grover S, Rani S, Mehra A, et al. COVID-19 pandemic: A crisis for health-care workers. J Mental Health Hum Behav 2020;25(1):1–4. DOI: 10.4103/jmhhb.jmhhb_96_20.
  6. Chakraborty K, Chatterjee M. Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on general population in West Bengal: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62(3):266–272. DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_276_20.
  7. Chakraborty K, Chatterjee M, Bhattacharyya R, et al. Psychological impact of ‘lockdown’ on behaviour of children during COVID-19 pandemic: An online survey. J Indian Assoc Child Adolesc Ment Health 2021;17(2):72–86.
  8. Li Z, Ge J, Yang M, et al. Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control. Brain Behav Immun 2020;88:916–919. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.007.
  9. Chan JFW, Zhang AJ, Yuan S, et al. Simulation of the clinical and pathological manifestations of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in golden Syrian hamster model: Implications for disease pathogenesis and transmissibility. Clin Infect Dis 2020;71(9):2428–2446. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa325.
  10. Perlman S, Evans G, Afifi ADEL. Effect of olfactory bulb ablation on spread of a neurotropic coronavirus into the mouse brain. J Exp Med 1990;172(4):1127–1132. DOI: 10.1084/jem.172.4.1127.
  11. Banerjee D, Viswanath B. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 and possible pathogenic mechanisms: Insights from other coronaviruses. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;54:102350. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102350.
  12. Sachdev K, Agrawal S, Ish P, et al. Neurological manifestations of COVID-19: A brief review. Indian J Med Res 2020;152(1 and 2):41–47. DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1395_20.
  13. Liu K, Chen Y, Lin R, et al. Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients. J Infect 2020;80(6):e14–e18. DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.005.
  14. Lechien JR, Chiesa-Estomba CM, De Siati DR, et al. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): A multicenter European study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020;277(8):2251–2261. DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1.
  15. Fischer M, Coogan AN, Faltraco F, et al. COVID-19 paranoia in a patient suffering from schizophrenic psychosis – A case report. Psychiatry Res 2020;288:113001. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113001.
  16. Zulkifli NA, Sivapatham S, Guan NC. Brief psychotic disorder in relation to coronavirus, COVID-19 outbreaks: A case report. Malaysian J Psychiatry 2020;29(1):67–72.
  17. Moriguchi T, Harii N, Goto J, et al. A first case of Meningitis encephalitis associated with SARS-Coronavirus-2. Int J Infect Dis 2020;94:55–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.062.
  18. Mao L, Jin H, Wang M, et al. Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol 2020;77(6):683–690. DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1127.
  19. Rajkumar RP. COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;52:102066. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066.
  20. Wu Y, Xu X, Chen Z, et al. Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. Brain Behav Immun 2020;87:18–22. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.031.
  21. Nalleballe K, Reddy Onteddu S, Sharma R, et al. Spectrum of neuropsychiatric manifestations in COVID-19. Brain Behav Immun 2020;88:71–74. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.06.020.
  22. Zhang Z, Feng Y, Song R, et al. Prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis and related psychopathological symptoms among patients with COVID-19 during the second wave of the pandemic. Global Health 2021;17(1):44. DOI: 10.1186/s12992-021-00694-4.
  23. He X, Zhang D, Zhang L, et al. Neurological and psychiatric presentations associated with COVID-19. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2022;272(1):41–52. DOI: 10.1007/s00406-021-01244-0.
  24. Rogers JP, Chesney E, Oliver D, et al. Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe coronavirus infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis with comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7:611–627. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30203-0.
  25. Varatharaj A, Thomas N, Ellul MA, et al. Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 in 153 patients: A UK-wide surveillance study. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7(10):875–882. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30287-X.
  26. AEFI: Some common ailments that can be expected after vaccination [cited 2022 April 8]. Available from:
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.