The electronic case records were retrieved for patients with a primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and who had visited the clinic during a specified period (n = 125). The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the age of the patients were 36 ± 13.5 years, the duration of illness was 8.6 ± 7.3 years, and the follow-up period was 45.5 ± 41.9 months. The age of onset of the illness was in the late 20s. Comorbid diagnosis with OCD was seen in 41% cases–bipolar disorder (BD) 28% and schizophrenia = 13%. A family history of a psychiatric illness was present in nearly one-third of the cases. Subjectively, outcome of “Normal” or “Better” was seen in 41% cases of pure OCD, 19% of OCD + BD, and 5% in OCD + schizophrenia. Clinical presentations of cases are also discussed. The patient's behavior in attending the clinic showed that initially the patients visit the clinic more frequently when the illness is severe, but later they come for consultation whenever there were some problems, but they continue taking medicines.
Degonda M, Wyss M, Angst J. The Zurich Study – XVIII. Obsessive-compulsive disorders and syndromes in the general population. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1993;243(1):16–22. DOI: 10.1007/BF02191519.
Karno M, Golding JM, Sorenson SB, et al. The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in five US communities. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45(12):1094–1099. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800360042006.
Ray SD. Obsessional states observed in New Delhi. Br J Psychiatry 1964;110:181–182. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.110.465.181.
Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V, et al. National Mental Health Survey of India: Prevalence, Pattern and Outcomes. ISSN: 01615505.
Janardhan Reddy YC, Rao NP, Khanna S. An overview of Indian research in obsessive compulsive disorder. Indian J Psychiatry 2010;52(Suppl 1):S200–S209. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.69233.
Akhtar S, Wig NN, Varma VK, et al. A phenomenological analysis of symptoms in obsessive compulsive neurosis. Br J Psychiatry 1975;127:342–348. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.127.4.342.
Akhtar S, Varma VK, Pershad D, et al. Socio-cultural and clinical determinants of symptomatology in obsessional neurosis. Int J Soc Psychiatry 1978;24(3):157–162. DOI: 10.1177/002076407802400301.
Akhtar S. Obsessional neurosis, marriage, sex and fertility: some transcultural comparisons. Int J Soc Psychiatry 1978;24(3):164–166. DOI: 10.1177/002076407802400303.
Chakraborty A, Gouranga B. Ritual, a culture specific neurosis, and obsessional states in Bengali culture. Indian J Psychiatry 1975;17(4):211–216.
Janardhan Reddy YC, Shyam Sundar A, Narayanaswamy JC, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Indian J Psychiatry 2017;59(Suppl 1):S74–S90. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.196976.
Sharma LP, Janardhan Reddy YC. Obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbid with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Indian J Psychiatry 2019;61(Suppl 1):S140–S148. DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_527_18.
Kokurcan A, Nazlı ŞB. Clinical correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62(1):51–58. DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_268_19.
Fernandez-Egea E, Worbe Y, Bernardo M, et al. Distinct risk factors for obsessive and compulsive symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. Psychol Med 2018;48(16):2668–2675. DOI: 10.1017/S003329171800017X.
Zhou TH, Baytunca B, Yu X, et al. Schizo-obsessive disorder: the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of comorbid schizophrenia and OCD. Curr Treat Options Psychiatry 2016;3(3): 235–245. DOI: 10.1007/s40501-016-0085-6.
Amerio A, Stubbs B, Odone A, et al. The prevalence and predictors of comorbid bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 2015;186:99–109. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.06.005.
Amerio A, Stubbs B, Odone A, et al. Bipolar I and II disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis on differences in comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci 2016;10(3):e3604. DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-3604
Mahendran R, Liew E, Subramaniam M. De novo emergence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms with atypical antipsychotics in Asian patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a retrospective, cross-sectional study. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68(4):542–545. DOI: 10.4088/jcp.v68n0408.
Agarwal AK. Private practice in psychiatry in India–Development and seasonal variations. Indian J Priv Psychiatry 2018;12(1):15–19. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10067-0012.
Agarwal AK. Analysis of patients attending a private psychiatric clinic. Indian J Psychiatry 2012;54(4):356–358. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.104824.
Agarwal AK. Depression in clinical practice: a retrospective case record analysis. Indian J Priv Psychiatry 2020;14(1):1–5. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10067-0049.
Skoog G, Skoog I. A 40-year follow-up of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56(2):121–127. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.56.2.121.
Srivastava S, Agarwal AK, Sharma M. A three-year naturalistic follow-up of patients receiving clozapine: report from India. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2002;6(3):167–171. DOI: 10.1080/136515002760276108.
Janardhan Reddy YC, Srinath S, Prakash HM, et al. A follow-up study of juvenile obsessive-compulsive disorder from India. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2003;107(6):457–464. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2003.00082.x.
Leonard HL, Swedo SE, Lenane MC, et al. A 2- to 7-year follow-up study of 54 obsessive-compulsive children and adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50(6):429–439. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820180023003.
Kishore VR, Samar R, Janardhan Reddy YC, et al. Clinical characteristics and treatment response in poor and good insight obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur Psychiatry 2004;19(4):202–208. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2003.12.005.
Kamath P, Janardhan Reddy YC, Kandavel T. Suicidal behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68(11):1741–1750. DOI: 10.4088/jcp.v68n1114.
Janardhan Reddy YC, D'Souza SM, Shetti C, et al. An 11- to 13-year follow-up of 75 subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66(6):744–749. DOI: 10.4088/jcp.v66n0611.
Math SB, Thoduguli J, Janardhan Reddy YC, et al. A 5-year course of predominantly obsessive vs. mixed subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Indian J Psychiatry 2007;49(4):250–255. PMID: 20680136.