Indian Journal of Private Psychiatry

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 1 ( January-June, 2021 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder among Children Referred for the Assessment of Intellectual Disability for Certification and Its Association with Behavioral and Medical Issues

Shankar Kumar, Sneha Venkatakrishna, Sharon Ruth, Sushmitha Kota, Vedamurthy Bilagehalli Nanjappa

Keywords : Autism spectrum disorder, Comorbidities, Intellectual disability, Behavioral problem

Citation Information : Kumar S, Venkatakrishna S, Ruth S, Kota S, Nanjappa VB. A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder among Children Referred for the Assessment of Intellectual Disability for Certification and Its Association with Behavioral and Medical Issues. Ind J Priv Psychiatry 2021; 15 (1):38-41.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10067-0080

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 14-10-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2021; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Introduction: Intellectual disability (ID) is one of the strongest predictors of outcomes for those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Behavioral problems that are commonly observed in autism may be related to the core features of ASD or comorbid diagnoses. Aims: To assess the prevalence of ASD in those with ID referred for disability assessment and the associated medical and psychological comorbid issues. Materials and methods: The present study was a cross-sectional study that included 133 children with mild or moderate ID between 6 and 18 years of age. The study tools used were Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA), Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI), and a questionnaire to assess medical symptoms. Results: The prevalence of comorbid ASD in children with ID was 16.39%. Individuals with ASD had higher behavioral problems (p = 0.001) and medical issues that included gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (constipation, p = 0.001; bloating, p = 0.03; and abdominal pain, p = 0.03) and seizure (p = 0.002). Children with severe ASD scores had higher behavioral problem scores. Conclusion: Individuals with ID who were referred for disability assessment had a significant prevalence of ASD. These children had higher behavioral problems and medical issues. It is thus important to screen for ASD in individuals with ID for better management of these individuals.


PDF Share
  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
  2. Vivanti G, Barabaro J, Dissanayakke C, et al. Intellectual development in autism spectrum disorders: new insights from longitudinal studies. Front Hum Neurosci 2013;7:354. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00354.
  3. Chakrabarti S, Fombonne E. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. J Am Med Assoc 2001;285(24):3093–3099. DOI: 10.1001/jama.285.24.3093.
  4. Sappok T, Bergmann T, Kaiser H, et al. Autism in adults with mental retardation. Der Nervenarzt 2010;81(11):1333–1345. DOI: 10.1007/s00115-010-3098-1.
  5. Autism Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders: autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2002. MMWR Surveill Summ 2007;56(SS-1):12–28.
  6. Baird G, Charman T, Baron-Cohen S, et al. A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: a 6-year follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000;39(6):694–702. DOI: 10.1097/00004583-200006000-00007.
  7. Bertrand J, Mars A, Boyle C, et al. Prevalence of autism in a United States population: the brick township, New Jersey, investigation. Pediatrics 2001;108(5):1155–1161. DOI: 10.1542/peds.108.5.1155.
  8. Chakrabarti S, Fombonne E. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. J Am Med Assoc 2001;285(24):3093–3099. DOI: 10.1001/jama.285.24.3093.
  9. Chakrabarti S, Fombonne E. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children: confirmation of high prevalence. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162(6):1133–1141. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1133.
  10. Charman T, Pickles A, Simonoff E, et al. IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders: data from the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Psychol Med 2011;41(3):619–627. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291710000991.
  11. Fombonne E. Epidemiological investigations for autism and pervasive developmental disorders. In: Lord C, editor. Educating children with autism. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences Press; 2001.
  12. Fombonne E. Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: an update. J Autism Dev Disord 2003;33(4):365–382. DOI: 10.1023/A:1025054610557.
  13. Goin-Kochel RP, Peters SU, Treadwell-Deering D. Parental reports on the prevalence of co-occurring intellectual disability among children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2008;2(3):546–556. DOI: 10.1016/j.rasd.2007.11.002.
  14. Yeargin-Allsopp M, Rice C, Karapurkar T, et al. Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. J Am Med Assoc 2003;289(1):49–55. DOI: 10.1001/jama.289.1.49.
  15. Action for Autism India, 2012. Available from: www.autism-india.org/
  16. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/
  17. Dawson M, Soulières I, Gernsbacher MA, et al. The level and nature of autistic intelligence. Assoc Psychol Sci 2007;18(8):657–662. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01954.x.
  18. Nordin V, Gillberg C. ASD in children with physical or mental disability. Dev Med Child Neurol 1996;38(4):297–313. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1996.tb12096.x.
  19. Lakhan R. Behavioral management in children with intellectual disabilities in a resource-poor setting in Barwani, India. IJP 2014;56(1):39–45. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.124712.
  20. Wasilewska J, Jarocka-Cyrta E, Kaczmarski M. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autism. Pol Merkur Lekarski 2009;27(157):40–43.
  21. Thomas S, Hovinga ME, Rai D, et al. Brief report: prevalence of co-occurring epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder: the U.S. National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012. J Autism Dev Disord 2017;47(1):224–229. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-016-2938-7.
  22. Horvath K, Papadimitriou J, Rabsztyn A, et al. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autistic disorder. J Pediatr 1999;135(5):559–563. DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3476(99)70052-1. PMID: 19650428.
  23. Horvath K, Perman JA. Autistic disorder and gastrointestinal disease. Curr Opin Pediatr 2002;14(5):583–587. DOI: 10.1097/00008480-200210000-00004.
  24. Wasilewska J, Klukowski M. Gastrointestinal symptoms and autism spectrum disorder: links and risks - a possible new overlap syndrome. Pediatric Health Med Ther 2015;6:153–166. DOI: 10.2147/PHMT.S85717.
  25. Kurzius-Spencer M, Pettygrove S, Christensen D, et al. Behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorder with and without co-occurring intellectual disability. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2018;12(56):61–71. DOI: 10.1016/j.rasd.2018.09.002.
  26. Lindor E, Sivaratnam C, May T, et al. Problem behavior in autism spectrum disorder: considering core symptom severity and accompanying sleep disturbance. Front Psychiatr 2019;10:487. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00487.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.