Background: Even though attempted suicides represent the “tip of the iceberg,” they are slowly assuming the levels of a public health problem caused by several factors. We aimed to study the various clinical characteristics and gender differences among suicidal attempters.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted after taking ethical clearance. Data were collected from a tertiary care center at Bagalkot over the 6 months. The subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated by using semistructured pro forma, and various scales like Beck\'s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck\'s Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Beck\'s Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) were applied. Relevant statistical tests were performed.
Results: Total number of study participants was 100 out of which 52% were females and 48% were males. The mean age of suicide attempters was 29.08 (SD = 11.601). Organophosphorus poisoning was the mode of attempt in 33% of the study subjects and 26% had severe depression.
Conclusion: Factors responsible for attempted suicides were young adults, female sex, low socioeconomic status, low education level, with marriage also being a potential one. Depression and anxiety are the psychiatric disorders associated strongly with a suicide attempt. Most of these factors can be either prevented or controlled.
Rathi PS. Psycho-social assessment of patients in ICU with deliberate self harm: an observational study. Int Med J 2016;3(1):20–23. Available from: https://www.medpulse.in/Article/Volume3Issue1/MedPulse_3_1_6.pdf''
Kumar KK, Sattar FA, Bondade S, et al. A gender-specific analysis of suicide methods in deliberate self-harm. Indian J Soc Psychiatry 2017;33(1):7. DOI: 10.4103/0971-9962.200098.
World Health Organization. 2016. Suicide data. Available from: http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/suicideprevent/en/
National Crimes Records Bureau. Accidental deaths and suicides in India 2013. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India; 2014.
Reddy MS. Suicide incidence and epidemiology. Indian J Psychol Med 2010;32(2):77. DOI: 10.4103/0253-7176.78501.
Vijayakumar L. Indian research on suicide. Indian J Psychiatry 2010;52(Suppl. 1):S291. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.69255.
Suresh Kumar PN. An analysis of suicide attempters versus completers in kerala. Indian J Psychiatry. 2004 Apr;46(2):144–149. PMID: 21408041; PMCID: PMC2949930.
Beck AT, Kovacs M, Weissman A. Assessment of suicidal intention: the scale for suicide ideation. J Consult Clin Psychol 1979;47(2):343–352. DOI: 10.1037//0022-006x.47.2.343.
Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. BDI-II manual. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace & Company; 1996.
Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, et al. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol 1988;56(6);893–897. DOI: 10.1037//0022-006x.56.6.893.
Nukala S, Edam R, Dattatrey M. Psychiatric morbidity in patients of attempted suicide admitted in a rural area hospital of northern Andhra Pradesh. Int J Cur Res Rev 2013;5(21):65–70. DOI: 10.31782/IJCRR.2013.111313.
Krishna VM, Sheikh NA. Psychiatric co-morbidity in deliberate self harm patient at rural medical college of South India. Int J Rec Adv Multidiscip Res 2014;1(12):119–123.
Chandrasekaran R, Gnanaseelan J, Sahai A, Swaminathan RP, Perme B. Psychiatric and personality disorders in survivors following their first suicide attempt. Indian J Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;45(2):45–48. PMID: 21206833; PMCID: PMC2952146.
Latha KS, Bhat SM, D'souza P. Suicide attempters in a general hospital unit in India: their socio-demographic and clinical profile, emphasis on cross-cultural aspects. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996;94(1):26–30. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1996.tb09820.x.
Narang RL, Mishra BP, Nitesh M. Attempted suicide in Ludhiana. Indian J Psychiatry. 2000 Jan;42(1):83–87. PMID: 21407914; PMCID: PMC2957009.
Kumar PN. Age and gender related analysis of psychosocial factors in attempted suicide. Indian J Psychiatry. 1998 Oct;40(4):338–345. PMID: 21494498; PMCID: PMC2966685.
International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International 2007. National family Health Survey (NFHS-3): Vol 1. India: Mumbai: IIPS; 2005-06.
Kodali M, Kilaru K. Psychiatric morbidity of attempted suicide patients admitted to a general hospital in rural area of South India. J Dent Med Sci 2008;4(3):46–50. DOI: 10.9790/0853-0434650.
Kessler RC, Borges G, Walters EE. Prevalence of and risk factors for lifetime suicide attempts in the National Co-morbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56(7):617–626. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.56.7.617.
Sudhir Kumar CT, Mohan R, Ranjith G, et al. Gender differences in medically serious suicide attempts: a study from south India. Psychiatry Res 2006;144(1):79–86. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres. 2005.11.012.
Baalasubramanian S, Pradeep ANKS, Jayaraman S, et al. Sociodemographic risk factors among deliberate self-harm in young women with tertiary care. Int J Curr Med Pharmaceut Res 2016;2(11):1036–1039.
Bansal PD, Barman R. Psychiatric morbidity and the socio-demographic determinants of deliberate self harm. J Clin Diagn Res 2011;5(3):601–604. DOI: JCDR/2011/1326.
Kiran Kumar PK, Sukesh S, Kakunje A, et al. Epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in deliberate self harm victims. J Evol Med Dent Sci 2013;2(7):738–744. DOI: 10.14260/jemds/333.
Das PP, Grover S, Avasthi A, et al. Intentional self-harm seen in psychiatric referrals in a tertiary care hospital. Indian J Psychiatry 2008;50(3):187. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.43633.
Sareen J, Cox BJ, Afifi TO, et al. Anxiety disorders and risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: a population-based longitudinal study of adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62(11):1249–1257. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.11.1249.
Harriss L, Hawton K. Suicidal intent in deliberate self-harm and the risk of suicide: the predictive power of the Suicide Intent Scale. J Affect Disord 2005;86(2–3):225–233. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2005.02.009.
Suominen K, Isometsä E, Henriksson M, et al. Hopelessness, impulsiveness and intent among suicide attempters with major depression, alcohol dependence, or both. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;96(2):142–149. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1997.tb09919.x.
Placidi GP, Oquendo MA, Malone KM, et al. Anxiety in major depression: relationship to suicide attempts. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157(10):1614–1618. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.10.1614.