Indian Journal of Private Psychiatry
Volume 15 | Issue 1 | Year 2021

Post-COVID Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in India: Are We Ready for it?

Mahesh, Gowda1, Guru S Gowda2

1Director, Spandana Health Care Bengaluru, India

2Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Corresponding Author: Mahesh Gowda, Director, Spandana Health Care Bengaluru, India, Phone: +91 9845134915, e-mail: maheshrgowda@yahoo.com

How to cite this article: Gowda M, Gowda GS. Post-COVID Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in India: Are We Ready for It? Ind J Priv Psychiatry 2021;15(1):1–2.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


India has had at least 33 million SARS-CoV-2 infections after ignoring the undetected infections, and 67.6% turned seropositive in the fourth round of National serosurvey conducted between June 14, 2021, and July 6, 20219 Parliament of India (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare), Lok Sabha, Government of India. If we assume that 50% of SARS-CoV-2 infections result in post-COVID-19 neuropsychiatric syndrome, India can expect 16.5 million people to suffer from post-COVID-19 neuropsychiatric syndrome.


  1. Raising community awareness of the post-COVID-19 neuropsychiatric syndrome through information, education, and communication (IEC) activities.

  2. Scaling up and skill-building training of primary care doctors Doctor, Nurses, Community Health Workers and other allied healthcare and mental health professionals to screen and identify patients with anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, post-traumatic stress disorder, dysautonomia, attention, dysexecutive symptoms, and fatigue among post-COVID-19 survivors to assess the post-COVID neuropsychiatric syndrome.4,6

  3. Allowing telemedicine services to digitally screen for post-COVID neuropsychiatric syndrome and make an appropriate referral to a “post-COVID clinic.”

  4. To begin interdisciplinary “post-COVID clinic” services in secondary and tertiary care centers in India for post-COVID syndrome.

  5. To develop evidence-based national clinical practice guidelines on post-COVID syndrome and enable the safe and effective practice.

  6. To fund research in this area in order to better understand the prevalence, a constellation of symptoms involving various organs, disability, burden, and policy-based clinical practice in India.

  7. Appropriate policies should be developed to allocate independent funding and human resources to provide holistic evidence-based post-COVID syndrome treatment and research.

  8. The authority should monitor the policy implementation on “post-COVID syndrome care”.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic-related mental health problems and post-COVID neuropsychiatric syndrome are major public health concerns both worldwide and in India. The technology-driven “post-COVID-19 clinic” can provide multidisciplinary, integrated, and holistic care to post-COVID survivors. There is a need for research, policy, a separate budget, and resource allocation to help reach the community’s unreached vulnerable population.


1. Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: the mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol 2020;92(4):401–402. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25678. PMID: 31950516; PMCID: PMC7166628.

2. Gorbalenya AE, Baker SC, Baric RS, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: the species and its viruses—a statement of the coronavirus study group. bioRxiv 2020. DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.07.937862.

3. World Health Organisation (WHO). Available from: https://covid19.who.int/region/searo/country/in [Accessed on September 13, 2021].

4. Nalbandian A, Sehgal K, Gupta A, et al. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Nat Med 2021;27(4):601–615. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-021-01283-z.

5. Carfì A, Bernabei R, Landi F, et al. Persistent symptoms in patients after acute COVID-19. JAMA 2020;324(6):603–605. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.12603.

6. Rogers JP, Chesney E, Oliver D, et al. Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe coronavirus infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis with comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7(7):611–627. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30203-0.

7. Carod-Artal FJ. Post-COVID-19 syndrome: epidemiology, diagnostic criteria and pathogenic mechanisms involved. Rev Neurol 2021;72(11):384–396. DOI: 10.33588/rn.7211.2021230.

8. Banerjee D, Vaishnav M, Rao TS, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychosocial health and well-being in South-Asian (World Psychiatric Association zone 16) countries: a systematic and advocacy review from the Indian Psychiatric Society. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62(Suppl. 3):S343–S353. DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_1002_20.

9. Parliament of India (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare), Lok Sabha, Government of India. Available from: http://loksabhaph.nic.in/Questions/QResult15.aspx?qref=24949&lsno=17 [Accessed on September 13, 2021].

© The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and non-commercial reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.